Source of Vitamins

Vitamins

Normal metabolic activity depends on very small amounts of more than a dozen organic substances called vitamins. Vitamin (L. vita,life) is the general term for a number of chemically unrelated,organic substances that occur in many foods in small amounts and are necessary for normal metabolic functioning. Vitamins may be water soluble or fat soluble. Most water-soluble vitamins, such as the B vitamins.vitamin B1,Vitamin B2,Vitamin B6,Vitamin B12 and vitamin C, are coenzyme needed in metabolism and other are fat soluble Vitamins.Fat soluble vitamins.

Thiamine

thiamine also known as vitamin B1 is water soluble vitamin. It may destroyed by heat and oxygen, particularly in alkaline environment. It is a part of coenzyme that needed for oxidation of carbohydrates and coenzyme in synthesis of Ribose. Its daily requirement are 1.2 mg for adult person. Its deficiency may causes many diseases like Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

While its overdoses may cause; Drowsiness or muscle relaxation with large doses. So, take it as recommended by your doctor.

It may be found naturally in the following foods,  Lean meats, liver, eggs, whole grain cereals, leafy green vegetables, legumes, .

Vitamins B2 also known as Riboflavin is Stable to heat, acids, and oxidation; destroyed by alkalis and light. Vitamin B2 is a water soluble Vitamin and is also Part of enzymes and coenzyme needed for oxidation of glucose and fatty acids and for cellular growth. Its daily requirement is 1.3 mg for an adult individual. It naturally found in the following sources, Meats, dairy products, leafy green vegetables, whole grain cereals.

 

These are water soluble Vitamins given in this table.

VITAMIN

CHARACTERISTICS FUNCTIONS SOURCES

Thiamin (vitamin B1)

Destroyed by heat and oxygen, especially in alkaline environment Part of coenzyme needed for oxidation of carbohydrates, and coenzyme needed in synthesis of ribose Lean meats, liver, eggs, whole grain cereals, leafy green vegetables, legumes

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

Stable to heat, acids, and oxidation; destroyed by alkalis and light Part of enzymes and coenzyme needed for oxidation of glucose and fatty acids and for cellular growth. Meats, dairy products, leafy green vegetables, whole grain cereals.

Niacin (Vitamin B3)

Stable to heat, acids, and alkalis; converted to nicotinamide by cells; synthesized from tryptophan Part of coenzyme needed for oxidation of glucose and synthesis of proteins, fats, and nucleic acids Liver, lean meats, poultry, peanuts, legumes

Vitamin B6

Group of three compounds; stable to heat and acids; destroyed by oxidation, alkalis, and ultraviolet light Coenzyme needed for synthesis of proteins and various amino acids, for conversion of tryptophan to niacin, for production of antibodies, and for synthesis of nucleic acids Liver, meats, fish, poultry, bananas, avocados, beans, peanuts, whole-grain, cereals, egg yolk.

Pantothenic acid

Destroyed by heat, acids, and alkalis Part of coenzyme needed for oxidation of carbohydrates and fats Meats, fish, whole-grain cereals, legumes, milk, fruits, vegetables

Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12)

Complex, cobalt-containing compound; stable to heat; inactivated by light, strong acids, and strong alkalis; absorption regulated by intrinsic

factor from gastric

glands; stored in liver

Part of coenzyme needed for synthesis of nucleic acids and for metabolism of carbohydrates; plays role in synthesis of myelin Liver, meats, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, eggs

Folate (folic acid)

Occurs in several forms; destroyed by oxidation in acid environment or by heat in alkaline

environment; stored in liver, where it is converted

into folic acid

Coenzyme needed for metabolism of certain amino acids and for synthesis of DNA; promotes production of normal red blood cells Liver, leafy green vegetables, whole-grain cereals, legumes

Biotin

Stable to heat, acids, and light; destroyed by oxidation and alkalis. Coenzyme needed for metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids and for synthesis of nucleic acids Liver, egg yolk, nuts, legumes, mushrooms

Ascorbic acid

Closely related to monosaccharides;

stable in acids, but destroyed by oxidation, heat, light, and alkalis

Needed for production of collagen, conversion of folate to folic acid, and metabolism of certain amino acids; promotes absorption of iron and synthesis of hormones from cholesterol Citrus fruits, citrus juices, tomatoes, cabbage, potatoes, leafy green vegetables, fresh fruits

 

These are fat soluble vitamins given in this table.

vitamin CHARACTERISTICS FUNCTIONS SOURCES

Vitamin A

Occurs in several forms; synthesized from carotene; stored in liver; stable in

heat, acids, and alkalis; unstable in light

Necessary for synthesis of visual pigments, mucoproteins, and lipopolysaccharides; for normal development of bones and teeth; and for maintenance of epithelial cells Liver, fish, whole milk, butter, eggs, leafy green vegetables, and yellow and orange vegetables and fruits

Vitamin D

A group of sterols; resistant to heat, oxidation, acids, and alkalis; stored in liver, skin, brain, spleen, and bones Promotes absorption of calcium and phosphorus; promotes development of teeth and bones Produced in skin exposed to ultraviolet light; in milk, egg yolk, fish-liver oils, fortified foods

Vitamin E

A group of compounds; resistant to heat and

visible light; unstable in presence of oxygen and ultraviolet light; stored in muscles and adipose tissue

An antioxidant; prevents oxidation of vitamin A and polyunsaturated fatty acids; may help maintain stability of cell membranes Oils from cereal seeds, salad oils, margarine, shortenings, fruits, nuts, and vegetables

Vitamin K

Occurs in several forms; resistant to heat, but destroyed by acids, alkalis, and light; stored in liver Needed for synthesis of prothrombin; needed for blood clotting Leafy green vegetables, egg yolk, pork liver, soy oil, tomatoes, cauliflower

 

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